Corresponding Author

Ayhan H. Saleem

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Document Type

Research Article


Mosul dam is an earth-fill embankment located north of Iraq on the Tigris River forming a reservoir with 11.11 km3 water storage capacity which is the largest dam in the country. The dam is built on a rock bed foundation, in which the dissolution process is dynamic in the zone where gypsum and anhydrite layers present. During the construction development seepage locations were found in the dam foundation and the grouting process is in progress until now to control this problem. Therefore, the possibility of the Mosul dam break is highlighted by previous studies. In this research, a FORTRAN code based on the finite volume method is modified to solve the two-dimensional shallow water equations and simulating the Mosul dam break. The computational domain discretized using unstructured triangular mesh. The solver applied Harten lax van leer with contact (HLLC) wave approximate Riemann solver to calculate the cell interface fluxes, and the semi-implicit scheme employed to solve the friction source term. The numerical scheme applied to two benchmark test cases, and the results showed that the presented model was robust and accurate especially in handling wet/dry beds, mixed flow regimes, discontinuities, negative water depths, and complex topography. The results of this study demonstrate that flood waves may reach the center of Mosul city in < 6 h and water depth may rise to 34 m after 7 h of Mosul dam breaking. Finally, the simulation results of the Mosul dam break were used to prepare an emergency action plan


Dam break, Emergency action plan, Finite volume method, Harten lax van leer with contact scheme, Unstructured grid

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