Corresponding Author

Huda R. Mahdi Alawsi

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Document Type

Research Article


Background: Parafunctional habit has been associated in the literature with alterations of dental occlusion; it could be a predisposing factor for malocclusion. This cross-sectional study is aimed to assess the prevalence of parafunctional habits and its relation to parent’s education. Subjects and Methods: Convenience sample of 500 children aged between 4 and 6 years of both gender 262 boys and 238 girls receiving their medical care in primary health-care centers and in Raparin Pediatric Hospital of Erbil city to study parafunctional habits and its relation to parents education. Results: Mouth breathing and nail biting were more prevalent habits in the included children than lip sucking and bruxism. The former habits prevalence showed no significant differences in children whose their parents education background are different (high, middle, or low education). Conclusion: Mouth breathing and nail biting were highly prevalent habits among preschool children in Erbil city. No significant association was found between the prevalence of bad oral habits and parents education.


Parafunctional habits, Parents education, Preschool children

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