Corresponding Author

Mohammed H. Fatah

Authors ORCID


Document Type

Research Article


Health professional staff often claims information about trying to differentiate the used antibiotics based on the manufacturers that produce the drug, which may lead to a differentiation in the prescribing of the antibiotics by a physician. Numerous antibiotics produced by different manufactures, under different brands names are available in pharmacies for urinary tract infection (UTI) treatment; this study proceeds to find out and evaluates antibacterial activities of three most used antibiotics, produced by different antibiotic producers on uropathogens in Kalar city. Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method is employed to assess antibacterial effectiveness of Amikacin (Ak), Levoflaxocilin (Lv) and Nitrofuratoin (Nr) against reference strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and clinically isolated uropathogens (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Proteus vulgaris, and Klebsiella pneumoniae). Inhibition zones (IZ) were determined in millimeter unit to show the activity of the antibiotics. It has been found that the activity of all brands on sensitive bacterial strains were in the preferred range and surpassed the threshold of (IZ) determined by Clinical Laboratories Standards Institute (CLSI) guide. The lack of significant differences among most tested brands for each antibiotic, support this idea


Amikacin, Levofloxacin, Nitrofurantoin, manufactures, Uropathogens

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