Corresponding Author

Dawod R. Keya

Document Type

Original Article


This article presents a preliminary study conducted to identify soil minerals within Erbil Province. Soil minerals play a crucial role in soil fertility, nutrient availability, and various soil-related processes. Understanding the mineral composition of soils is essential for effective land management, sustainable agriculture, and environmental conservation. The study area was carefully selected to represent a diverse range of soil types, geological formations, and land use practices. A systematic sampling approach was employed, ensuring adequate coverage of the study area. 80 soil samples were collected from various locations and depths, and a combination of field observations and laboratory analyses was conducted to identify and characterize soil minerals. The soil samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method to determine the mineral composition. The identification of minerals allowed for insights into the geological origin, weathering processes, and soil formation mechanisms within the study area. The preliminary findings revealed a diverse range of soil minerals across the study area. Common mineral types, including silicates, carbonates, oxides, and clay minerals, were identified. Variations in mineral composition were observed, reflecting the influence of parent material, geology, and soil development processes. The results of this preliminary study provide a foundation for future research and more in-depth investigations of soil minerals in the study area. The mineral identification data can be utilized for land use planning, soil classification, and targeted soil management strategies


Soil geochemistry; Soil Mineralogy; X-ray diffraction; Soil mineral identification; Erbil Province.