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Research Article


Background and objective: To determine the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Erbil province. Methodology: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed in the Hawler teaching center for dermatology diseases and carried out with the collaboration of prevention Health Department, Erbil Medical Technical Institute, Erbil Polytechnic University, with Department of Microbiology and Anatomy & Histology, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq. All the patients who presented at the dermatology clinic during the period from January 2015 to December 2017 were referred cases from health centers outside Erbil center. A small amount of aspirated fluid was taken and smeared on a clean glass microscope slide then left it to dry, then fixed using 70% methanol for 30 seconds and left it to dry again. The diagnosis was dependent mainly on clinical examination in addition to Giemsa stain. Results: During the study period, the total skin diseases cases which were referred to this center was 2871, while the number of cutaneous leismaniasis among the total dermatological cases was 1938 (67.5%) and the highest number of cases 848 (43.8%) was in the year 2016.All patients were referred from two districts in Erbil governorate: Makhmur & Kalak.Makhmur district had the highest percentage of cases1407 (72.6%) with P-value (P ≤0.01). Rural patients were of higher number and percentage in comparison to urban 1083 (55.9) with P-value (P ≤0.01). Regarding occupation, the highest percent of cases was in children 650 (33.5%) followed by students 462(23.8%). The highest number of cases was recorded during February 663(34.2%) & January 369 (19%) while the lowest rate of cases was registered during July 4(0.2%).The participant’s ages ranged from 10 months to 61 years. Males had the highest percentage of distribution than females 1129(58.3%) with P-value (p≤ 0.05).Males were distributed in a higher percentage in regarding to both age groups of (below & above 15 years) as 671(60.3%) 458(55.4%) respectively and P-value (p≤ 0.05).Clinically, 51.4% of patients had one lesion P-value (P ≤0.01), 52.3% of patients had wet type P-value (P ≤0.01). Most lesions were found on both limbs (56.9%) with P-value (P ≤0.01). According to stain results, 1372(70.8%) of the cases were positive to Giemsa stain while 566 (29.2%) cases clinically diagnosed by an experienced dermatologist. Conclusions: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Makhmur & Kalak districts .Males was infected in higher percent than females and this may be due to cultural, occupational and social factors

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