Corresponding Author

Masood A. Kareem

Authors ORCID


Document Type

Research Article


Tobacco use is considered one of the largest public health threats facing the world. Waterpipe smoking (WPS) is a customary and cultural method of tobacco consumption in many parts of the world. This study aimed to find the prevalence of smoking among Duhok city University students in Iraq and to assess students’ knowledge regarding smoking. A cross-sectional, self-completed questionnaire-based study was conducted at four Universities in Duhok city. According to the study’s objectives, scientific and literature colleges from each university are selected. The selection of the number of enrolled colleges and departments is proportionate with total university students’ number. The colleges and departments are selected by a simple random sampling method. Descriptive and analytic statistical tools (SPSS-23) were used to assess significant associations. Chi-square test association is used to compare between proportions. The prevalence of cigarette smoking was 23.5% among studied students (41.9% among males and 6.8% among females), and the prevalence of WPS was 33.2% (56.7% among males and 11.8% among females). There is a significant correlation between cigarette smoking and WPS. Most of the students in this study were not well aware of the most harmful effects of smoking. There was a highly statistically significant association between cigarette and WPS. Smoking in males is more prevalent than females. Inclusion of a detailed and separate course in the university curriculum regarding tobacco control and the effects of smoking on health should be made compulsory. This course must be started from the 1st year of academic courses till the time of graduation or conducting health education and extensive counseling on the harmful effect of smoking for all university students.


Cigarette, Duhok students cigarette smoking, Water, Waterpipe smoking

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Life Sciences Commons