Corresponding Author

Dlair O. Ramadan

Authors ORCID


Document Type

Original Article


. In this study, the impact performance of the Al2024 thin plate target was determined through a numerical approach. Two different-nosed hard steel projectiles, including a blunt and a sphere, were used in order to obtain the ballistic impact of the target. ANSYS Autodyn was used to model a three-dimensional (3D) model that corresponds to a previous experimental study. The ballistic resistance of the target was numerically evaluated in terms of ballistic limit velocity, residual velocity, and energy absorption and compared at different incident angles such as 0°, 15°, and 30°. To validate the numerical outcomes, the Recht-Ipson model was used as a reference benchmark. The results of this investigation showed that when the incidence angle of a sphere-nosed projectile increased, the target's ballistic performance decreased. In contrast, the target’s ballistic resistance against a blunt-nosed projectile was little affected by the impact angle. According to the findings, the simulation results are consistent with the published numerical and experimental outcomes.


Blunt projectile; Energy absorption; Oblique impact; Recht-Ipson model; Sphere projectile