Corresponding Author


Document Type

Research Article


Groundwater is the main source of crop irrigation in Erbil plain. The study was conducted on two aspects: water quality assessment and it is impact on soil chemical properties in related to ion pair and ion activity. The field experiment was conducted by planting wheat crop during 11/12/2015 to 30/5/2016 to study the effect of different types of groundwater on soil chemical properties using RCBD design, with 3 replicates. In addition, to this ion pair and ion activity were also calculated for three depths of soil (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30) cm. The results showed that the quality of groundwater had a general decline from the north to the south of the study area. About the soil chemical properties, EC increased from 0.65 – 4.86 times in comparing with initial ECe. Concentration increase of cations and anions in irrigation water caused a significant (P valve 0.05) increase in their concentration in the soil extract. The highest concentration of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl- (22.33, 18.44 and 11.50) mmolc.L-1 was recorded from W6 level (0-10) cm, respectively. The highest concentration of Na+ (18.70) and SO42- (36.25) mmolc.L-1 was recorded from W7 level (0-10) cm. The amount of soil chemical criteria was decreased after calculating ion pair and ion activity in all treatments and depths of soil. On the one hand, the amount of nutrients in topsoil was more than the lower depths of soil.

Publication Date